And why context managers are your friends

In the 2020 StackOverflow Annual Developer Survey, Python was the #1 most wanted programming language. It’s easy to see why: Python is easy to learn, easier to read, and it allows programmers to articulate complex instructions with very simple syntax. Python is used all over the place: web development, machine learning, data science, even on embedded systems. (Check out MicroPython!) Python can also be used to interact with hardware devices. With the increasing popularity of single-board computers with IO pins exposed (like the Raspberry Pi), low-level development has never been more accessible to entry-level coders.

Hardware programming poses some interesting…


Interact with I2C, SPI, or bit-bang hardware using the FTDI FT2232H Mini module in Python3 and test it with an Arduino!

Sometimes you’ll find yourself needing to bridge the gap between your PC and a low-level hardware device like a microcontroller or an FPGA. These devices usually “speak” in protocols like I2C and SPI, but you might even need to read and write bits (aka “bit-bang”) in some situations. Some ADC converters are configured via I2C, but the actual data is returned as sets of 8-bit words.

You might be tempted to deploy another microcontroller (like an Arduino) that has…

Ben Gillett

Software engineer, hardware hacker, musician, maker! Will program for pretzels.

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